Welcome to my blog on ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY!

I will be posting material pertaining to animal physiology with emphasis on data obtained in my laboratory.  Recently, I have given particular attention to my experiments on synaptic efficacy or short-term synaptic plasticity.  My experiments have been performed on the frog neuromuscular junction.  Instead of an electrophysiological approach to this work, I have used an integrative physiological approach in which I measure population responses, i.e., muscle twitches.  The former is concerned with the measurements from individual synapses or small groups of them whereas the latter is concerned with the combined response of all the nerve/muscle synapses present in the muscle.  Although I have used the sciatic nerve/sartorius muscle preparation in my earlier experiments, all the of interesting and exciting results have been obtained from the sciatic nerve/gastrocnemius muscle preparation.

I earned by PhD in physiology from Indiana University in 1969.  Some of my early publications are as follows:

Presynaptic and postsynaptic effects of lead at the frog neuromuscular junction

RS Manalis, GP Cooper – 1973 – nature.com
LEAD has long been known to be toxic to animals and humans, with some of its effects
being attributable to actions on the neuromuscular system 1, 2. Since several other
polyvalent cations have potent effects on neuromuscular transmission 3–19, the question

Evoked transmitter release increased by inorganic mercury at frog neuromuscular junction

RS Manalis, GP Cooper – 1975 – nature.com
IT is well documented that calcium ions have an important role in the release of transmitter
substances from nerve terminals 1, 2. There is, however, little information about the
interactions of calcium with other chemical moieties within the nerve terminal which

Voltage-dependent effect of curare at the frog neuromuscular junction

RS Manalis – 1977 – nature.com
CONDUCTANCE measurements on various cholinergic post-junctional membranes have demonstrated
voltage-dependent effects for acetylcholine (ACh) and its agonists 1–5, for local anaesthetics 6, and for
curare 5. It is not yet clear which of the steps in drug–receptor

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